Nanotechnology used in medicine

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By Ankita Chouhan Bsc (GEN)

Nanotechnology is a revolutionary technology to treat various medical diseases. Father of nanotechnology is Richard Feynman. It acts like a miracle for treating chronic diseases such as cancer and AIDS. It focuses on production of cheap medicines, reduce side effects of medicines, treat chronic diseases and manufacture to reduce pain and bleeding during surgery. It works on the principle of targeted drug delivery as a drug that directly injected into the effective cells as large amount of drugs affects the healthy cells.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)are very thin cylindrical tubes which can penetrate through the cell membrane and provide drugs to the affected cell. Nano sensor chips are also used to detect early stage of Cancer as it possess thousands of CNTs in it. Other than chips, gold nanoparticles are also used to detect cancerous cells. Doxil, cornel dots (C-dots), abraxane etc are some examples of commercially used drugs containing nanoparticles.

In case to treat AIDS we use HAART (High activity antiviral therapy). As we are aware HIV is not curable but through HAART therapy replication of HIV can be inhibited which in turn leads to a life long treatment. HAART therapy was founded in 1996 which involves a combination of three antiretroviral (ARV) which includes integration inhibitors which prevents the HIV inserting is genetic code into the DNA of the infected cell.

Nanotechnology also plays an important role in bone implantation or replacement surgery. Artificial bones made up nanoparticles are much lighter and stronger than standard artificial bones used in the surgery. With the help of nanotech tools such as Arthroscope are also developed which consists of numerous Nano cameras and Nano lights which help in less time consuming and incision free surgery.

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