Category Archives

8 Articles

What is gel electrophoresis | Types and principles

What is gel electrophoresis | Types and principles

Gel Electrophoresis is a widely used analytical method in molecular biology and biotechnology.

Widely practiced for the separation of particles like viruses, small DNA fragments and nucleic acids and proteins. Also used after the PCR, to separate the DNA copies according to their quality.

Moreover, the electrophoresis method relies on the basic principle that the charged particles in a sample will migrate if an electric field applied to it.

Therefore, once electric field applied, the particle in the solution will migrate according to the charge or size.

Above all, widely used gels like polyacrylamide and agarose are commonly used .

This gel gives sieving or separating effect, and the particle separated by both size and charge.

Small molecules can travel faster than the larger one, also the negative charged particles will move towards anode. Similarly, positive charged particles will move towards cathode, in this way particle gets separated by size and charge.

Electrophoresis of cationic particle is called cataphoresis. Likewise, that of anionic particle called anaphoresis.

what is gel electrophoresis

Types of Electrophoresis

There are different types of electrophoresis but the most commonly and vividly used are mentioned below:

Capillary electrophoresis – molecules separated on the electrophoresis basis by using a capillary tube. To clarify, the molecules separated by running them through the capillary tubes. Accuracy higher but less quantity samples can be loaded at a time.

Native gels electrophoresis – protein run without SDS. Therefore, no proteins will get denatured in this method.

SDS – PAGE – Full form : Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate – Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. To clarify, SDS a detergent which can denature the protein and binds to the hydrophobic site of the molecule. Therefore, becoming the most dominant negative charge of the complex.

Here, the proteins are run through gel, polyacrylamide. Therefore, the particle density and size can be varied.

Electrofocusing gel – A gel with a pH gradient used here. As the particle travels through the gradient.

Meanwhile, it will loose protons and finally gets stucked at a point with no pH.

DNA Agarose gels – Here, agarose gels used to separate large fragments of DNA. The method used to separate according to the particle sizes. Here, no SDS needed because, DNA being negatively charged.

Above all, particle size sensitivity can be adjusted by adjusting gel density.

Sequencing gels – method used to separate smaller DNA fragments with a greater resolution. Firstly, the DNA denatured using heat and at the same time passed through polyacrylamide gel. Moreover, DNA which differ by 1 or 2 base can be separated more accurately.

The glowing DNA under the fluorescent light

Gel Electrophoresis applications

Applied for the estimation of DNA molecules.

Helps in mapping cloned DNA.

Analyzing the PCR products.

Gel electrophoresis widely used in forensics, molecular biology and genetic engineering.

Used in verification of amplified DNA using PCR.

Checking the quality of extracted DNA.

Gel electrophoresis a widely used technique, more modernized. Moreover, to determine the DNA fragment quality. In addition, used after the PCR to seperate and extract the DNA products.

So guys, do you like my work? Please let me know in the comment section. Also, do not forget to share with your near and dear ones.

Spread the science power!

What is RT PCR? |Reverse Transcriptase PCR

What is RT PCR? |Reverse Transcriptase PCR
What is RT PCR

RT PCR or Reverse Transcriptase PCR is a test used to detect retroviral diseases like AIDS. It gained popularity during coronavirus outbreak.

Before knowing about RT PCR, please refer PCR or Polymerase chain reaction first here –

PCR or polymerase chain reaction is the technique in which the DNA is amplified and the billion DNA copies are made. But, it has exceptions like it can only detect only DNA viruses. Therefore, detection of RNA viruses like retroviruses cannot be possible.

What is RT PCR

This is where the RT PCR has the significance.

Working mechanism

Viruses like Coronavirus have RNA as the genetic material, therefore, the detection using the traditional PCR becomes impossible.

So, scientists convert RNA to DNA using an enzyme called Reverse transcriptase, the process known as Reverse Transcription. On the other hand, the conversion of DNA to RNA is called Transcription.

What is RT PCR
Thermocycler or PCR machine used in PCR technique

Steps in RT PCR

Firstly, the RNA converted to DNA using reverse transcription.

The DNA then transferred to the thermocycler machine or the PCR machine.

Afterwards, the steps denaturation, annealing and extension followed and the billion DNA copies extracted.

Please refer the PCR steps here –


Coming to advantages, it had got more in addition than the traditional PCR.

Highly sensitive as the RNA involvement in it.

Highly specific, with more accuracy than PCR.

Requires less than 4 hours in diagnosis, moreover, the laboratories take up to 6-8 hours.

As the genetic material placed in a closed tube with enzymes, it has low potential contamination.

RT PCR in Corona test

Nowadays, with Coronavirus being prevalent, the RT PCR use got very much boosted up.

What is RT PCR

Firstly, the victim’s blood sample is taken then using several enzymes the RNA is extracted and converted to DNA and with PCR many copies are made.

Now, the DNA bases are made to pair with another bases tagged with markers. Further, the pairs are examined through fluorescence technique. If there are abnormalities, in the pairs the pairing does not occur. In other words, the person stated positive in the test.

So, folks tell me! Do you like my works, please comment down and let me know. Also, share with your near and dear ones. Let us build a strong science community.


What is PCR? | Polymerase Chain Reaction Explained

What is PCR? | Polymerase Chain Reaction Explained

What is PCR?

Polymerase chain reaction is a technique through which the DNA is ampified and desired copies of the DNA is extracted.

What’s with the name?

Polymerase stands for enzyme, chain means the type of reaction. PCR is a chain reaction. Therefore, it is an Enzyme linked chain reaction, which makes copies of the DNA.

PCR – Uses

This technique is used to diagnose infections, above all to detect viral infections.

For instance, The blood sample of the patient is taken and the viral DNA is extracted and amplified.

Used in crime investigation, as it involves DNA. Also, in branches of Biotechnology, Forensic and molecular biology.

Used in Genetic research

Materials required in PCR

Now, you have understood what is pcr and it’s uses. To run a reaction ingredients are required, so here are the ingredients or materials required for the PCR:

1) Thermal cycler or PCR machine

To understand the PCR, first of all it is necessary to understand what is PCR machine. PCR machine or thermal cycler machine is where the reaction takes place. Above all, it is the main machinery in which the DNA copies are made.

what is pcr

Contains small tubes to which the ingredients mentioned below are added.

2) Taq polymerase

The DNA polymerase used here in PCR, it is extracted from a bacteria called Thermus aquaticus which can withstand high temperature. Similarly, this enzyme too can withstand high temperatures.

It is ideal for PCR, because Taq polymerase is active around 70 degree celsius. Also, it is very heat stable.

what is pcr

3) Primers

Primers are short sequence nucleotides. It provides a starting point to initiate the reactions. Moreover, it helps to choose an exact well defined portion to amplify.

3) Nucleotides

These are the basic units of DNA. Required here to make copies with the denatured parts of the DNA.

4) DNA template

This is the original segment of DNA we want to amplify, the target DNA. To clarify, the amplification starts in this template.

Now, we are set with the ingredients. In addition, we are left to initiate the reaction.

what is pcr

The process of PCR is split into three parts:

Denaturation, Annealing and Extension

Here, is the explanation step by step:


The first step in PCR in which the temperature raised to 96 degree celsius. In other words, done to seperate the strands of the original DNA template. That is, one DNA template into two. Here, we will get two separate strands of the DNA.


In this second step, the machine temperature is reduced to 55 degree celsius.

After that, it results in the primer attachment to the target sequence of the stranded DNA or denatured DNA,


The last step in which the free nucleotides are required.

The temperature is increased to 72 degree celsius, meanwhile , it results in the activation of Taq polymerase. It will extend the primers to make new DNA strands.

These are the steps and the reaction occurs like a chain in which from one DNA we get two copies, further from two we get Four copies and so on, so for 100 reactions it can produce billions of copies.

Sleeping trouble insomnia : symptoms, types, causes and treatment

sleeping trouble

Sleeping trouble are common these days mainly influenced by our lifestyle. So examine the cause and remedies change the lifestyle and fight insomnia.

What is Insomnia or sleeping trouble?

It is a sleep disorder which prevents enjoyable and quality sleep. It can lead to anxiety and depression and other problems.

Generally a human needs a sleep ranging from 6-8 hours. A person suffering from insomnia may wake up early, or they can wake between the sleep. It leads to interruption of sleep.

In the current scenario, mostly, people suffer from sleeping trouble. There are many sleeping trouble or disorders. But mostly it is more related to Insomnia.

So, here we present some of the causes and remedies (very easy one) all the way possible.

sleeping trouble

Symptoms of Insomnia

Check if these are the problems of your sleeping trouble…

Waking too much earlier in the morning.

Not falling asleep within half an hour.

Not staying asleep

Getting interrupted between the sleep

Feeling sleepy during daytime

Lack of attention and concentration

Unable to think clearly

Above are earlier symptoms which can lead to :

Mood swings

Tiredness even lethargy


Types of Insomnia

Insomnia is a kind of sleeping trouble with many types.

There can be distinction giving sleeping trouble differently.

Acute insomnia

Caused by life problems like stressful job, receiving bad news, tensions etc. It is mainly a mentally related issue and it can be solved without having treatment. In these conditions it is better to be positive and enjoy life. Yoga and meditation can be helpful for this.

Chronic insomnia

It generally occurs when a person falls asleep or has difficulty staying asleep at least three nights a week for three months or more.

Comorbid insomnia

It occurs with conditions related to mental and medical conditions. Mental conditions like anxiety and depression are found associated. Certain medical conditions can cause insomnia like arthritis or back pain and joint pain which makes it difficult to fall asleep.

Maintaining insomnia People with this insomnia wake up during the night between the sleep and find it difficult to return to sleep. It is generally an interruption to a good sleep

Insomnia sleeping trouble causes

There are many reasons for sleeping trouble to occur :

Going to sleep very late

Not sleeping for at least 6 hours

Having a heavy dinner or going to sleep with empty stomach

Getting stressed and tensed

Sleeping too much like for more than 8 hours it can also cause lethargy

Sleeping during daytime

Too much exposure of smartphones and television


There are remedies for sleeping trouble or insomnia. But I recommend you for a healthy self treatment without any side effects at home by these ways.

reduce sleeping trouble by yoga

Yoga and meditation

Practice yoga and meditation. Atleast perform pranayama it helps to get quality sleep. Pranayama is a good breathing technique and it transports good oxygen levels to whole body. Meditate silently with a good sound. There are many types of  meditation sound apps available to meditate.

For yoga tips for beginner’s step by step click the link –

I am practicing yoga from this channel and I found it easier and helpful.

Normal Exercise

Lack of exercise can cause sleeping trouble. So, do regular exercise for at least 30 minutes. Cardio exercises or aerobics will be more effective.

Good sleep

Sleep for at least 6 hours and maintain a strict time for sleep. Always try to do the same thing every time before you go to sleep like reading a book. Also, try to avoid using smart phones for half an hour before you go to sleep.

Food habits

Food can influence sleeping a good balanced diet can help you to fight sleeping trouble or insomnia.

January can be rather a tricky month for me, when it comes to healthy food goals and maintaining a balanced diet..So, this week, I'm going to reveal more on that all important healthy, balanced diet and how you and I are going to achieve it on my blog!

Avoid drinking drinks with caffeine. Caffeine gives you energy but will snatch your sleep too.

Use poppy seeds in food (not too much), it will help you in getting a good sleep.

Cumin seeds are helpful in inducing sleep. It has been used in Ayurveda for sleeping troubles. Boil a glass of water and add some cumin seed (less than half a spoon) and drink with medium heat.

Eating Banana can also help as it can act as a tranquilizer.

So folks, I would love to hear your views, so comment down and let me know. It helps us to improve ourselves.

Also remember sharing is caring…. Share this to your dear ones….

#Stay safe #stay inside


Also refer

Increase immunity during coronavirus outbreak traditionally

Increase immunity during coronavirus outbreak traditionally

Increase immunity during coronavirus outbreak traditionally.

The world is suffering with the global pandemic, the coronavirus. The reason for the high effect is that the virus can affect 2 to 2.5 people by a carrier person. Also, the virus being undetectable with the symptoms showing in 14 days.

The world together continues to fight it with vaccine research and trials going on.

We do not have any option for medicines. So, in these days we can remain isolated and practice measures to increase immunity. Because left with no vaccines and antidote we only have immunity. It all depends on immunity now !

So, here we present easy traditional ways through which you can power up your immune cells. Increase immunity during coronavirus outbreak traditionally

Here are some of the tips:

Ginger(Zingiber officinale)

Use ginger( Zingiber officinale ), as it increases immunity. Also it eases cold and flu so it is an effective way to fight the coronavirus.

Increase immunity during coronavirus outbreak traditionally

You can consume ginger by smashing it and consuming it with honey. Honey is also better in powering up immunity. It decreases cough. Or you can use dry ginger powder with honey.

Increase immunity during coronavirus outbreak traditionally

Tulsi(Ocimum sanctum)

Tulsi( Ocimum sanctum ) is very beneficial. Use tulsi leaves by taking in with boiled water.

Increase immunity during coronavirus outbreak traditionally

Boil water by adding tulsi( Ocimum sanctum) in it. Also you can add ginger in it and consume.

Turmeric(Curcuma longa)

Use turmeric powder in food as it has anti fungal and anti bacterial properties. So it reduces infection.

 turmeric powder Increase immunity during coronavirus outbreak traditionally

It can be used in boiled water by adding a whole spoon of it.

So, these are the traditional methods to make your immunity healthy. I have been practicing it and found it effective. This ayurvedic traditional method is indeed powerful.

Also, do not use antibiotics in any case, it will only lower your immunity and will not act against the coronavirus.

So, use this method and comment down your experience with these traditional tips!

For learning more about Ayurveda visit

Top facts of new coronavirus china

coronavirus china

Top facts of new coronavirus china

The new coronavirus impact is huge.

Started in Wuhan province of China.It created impact worldwide.

Here are the top facts of new coronavirus china:

Official name of the virus

Official name is assigned to the virus. There are different strains of coronavirus. They may differ in various aspects.Officially the name of the virus is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 
given according to the act of virus.It severely induced acute respiratory syndrome.

Official name of the disease

There are lot of differences between the disease and virus. Likewise, the name of the disease is COVID-19.Where, CO stands for corona,VI for virus,D for disease and 19 stands for the year 2019 in which the outbreak started.



Still no treatment for the virus found.Various experiments conducted across the world showed no fruitful message till yet.

Early spread

Earlier an outbreak of coronavirus in the Middle east took place .

Therefore, named as MERS(Middle East respiratory syndrome).Believed to spread from camels,still unclear based on reports.

Spread facts of new coronavirus china

The spread started from a live animal market.Therefore,the government banned the transport of live animals.Sea foods strictly discouraged to consume.

live animal market

In contrast the MERS case and SARS case are similar and highlight one query, How the transmission of the virus takes place from animals to humans?


According to the present condition and analysis.The SARS-COV-2 is more contagious.SARS infected patients require more care than MERS one.SARS case is more complicated.


Corona Virus

coronavirus mythbusters

Coronavirus is a serious issue of the world.China is suffering a lot.Lot of myths circulated nowadays regarding the disease.

Here we present the coronavirus mythbusters

Chinese packages are not safe

Coronavirus do not survive long in packages or objects.The WHO(World health organization) analyzed and confirmed.Therefore,people in contact with package do not contract the coronavirus.

Coronavirus spread through pets

No evidence present regarding this issue.But practice hygiene.

Frequently wash hands after touching the pets.Get the pets vaccinated.In addition keep the pets clean.

Antibiotics effective for the treatment?

Antibiotics only work for bacteria.Not effective for virus.Antibiotics do not treat viral infections.The new corona virus is a virus.

However,hospitalized persons may receive the antibiotics.Because a bacterial infection chance is there.

Medicines for the coronavirus

Till date no medicines or treatment for the virus.But infected person needs good care and hospitalization.

People die once contracted

Only 2% cases faced deaths because of weak immunity.People with high immunity recover in a short period of time.But great care should be followed.


by sciencebirdie 2 Comments


A new virus related to SARS is behind China's mysterious pneumonia outbreak #worldnews


CORONAVIRUSs CHINA.Recently, virus spread is rapid in China.The spread started from Wuhan district.106 people died due to the infection.

Spreading started from sea food market.As a result the government advised to prevent the sea food use and consume.

Currently, no public transport is available in 10 cities.Also,airports and railways closed.


Three cities in India are on high alert.Mumbai,Delhi and Kolkota are on high alert.

2 people out of 6 suspected because they showed some symptoms.Thermal scanning conducted in airports.

Recently,10 arrived people’s samples sent to medical labs.Gladly,the results came negative.The contagious virus can spread rapidly.Dry body conditions can create vulnerable conditions.


Person after infection can suffer acute respiratory syndrome.Diseases more related to respiration.

Above all,Symptoms include sore throat and cough and cold.Headache is considerably noted.


12 Things You Should Do Everyday - Drink Lots Of Water - of water with white background

No treatment or antidote for the corona virus.Once infected conditions can be lethal.But preventive measures can be taken.

Highly advised to wear masks in public places.Highly recommended to drink water.Because dry throat is the best breeding ground for virus.

Therefore,Keep the mouth and throat moist.