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What is gel electrophoresis | Types and principles

What is gel electrophoresis | Types and principles

Gel Electrophoresis is a widely used analytical method in molecular biology and biotechnology.

Widely practiced for the separation of particles like viruses, small DNA fragments and nucleic acids and proteins. Also used after the PCR, to separate the DNA copies according to their quality.

Moreover, the electrophoresis method relies on the basic principle that the charged particles in a sample will migrate if an electric field applied to it.

Therefore, once electric field applied, the particle in the solution will migrate according to the charge or size.

Above all, widely used gels like polyacrylamide and agarose are commonly used .

This gel gives sieving or separating effect, and the particle separated by both size and charge.

Small molecules can travel faster than the larger one, also the negative charged particles will move towards anode. Similarly, positive charged particles will move towards cathode, in this way particle gets separated by size and charge.

Electrophoresis of cationic particle is called cataphoresis. Likewise, that of anionic particle called anaphoresis.

what is gel electrophoresis

Types of Electrophoresis

There are different types of electrophoresis but the most commonly and vividly used are mentioned below:

Capillary electrophoresis – molecules separated on the electrophoresis basis by using a capillary tube. To clarify, the molecules separated by running them through the capillary tubes. Accuracy higher but less quantity samples can be loaded at a time.

Native gels electrophoresis – protein run without SDS. Therefore, no proteins will get denatured in this method.

SDS – PAGE – Full form : Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate – Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. To clarify, SDS a detergent which can denature the protein and binds to the hydrophobic site of the molecule. Therefore, becoming the most dominant negative charge of the complex.

Here, the proteins are run through gel, polyacrylamide. Therefore, the particle density and size can be varied.

Electrofocusing gel – A gel with a pH gradient used here. As the particle travels through the gradient.

Meanwhile, it will loose protons and finally gets stucked at a point with no pH.

DNA Agarose gels – Here, agarose gels used to separate large fragments of DNA. The method used to separate according to the particle sizes. Here, no SDS needed because, DNA being negatively charged.

Above all, particle size sensitivity can be adjusted by adjusting gel density.

Sequencing gels – method used to separate smaller DNA fragments with a greater resolution. Firstly, the DNA denatured using heat and at the same time passed through polyacrylamide gel. Moreover, DNA which differ by 1 or 2 base can be separated more accurately.

The glowing DNA under the fluorescent light

Gel Electrophoresis applications

Applied for the estimation of DNA molecules.

Helps in mapping cloned DNA.

Analyzing the PCR products.

Gel electrophoresis widely used in forensics, molecular biology and genetic engineering.

Used in verification of amplified DNA using PCR.

Checking the quality of extracted DNA.

Gel electrophoresis a widely used technique, more modernized. Moreover, to determine the DNA fragment quality. In addition, used after the PCR to seperate and extract the DNA products.

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The new BMW going more than black

The new BMW going more than black

The whole new BMW going more than black

The new BMW going more than black


The new BMW X6 has released a new revolution. The bmw car is going more blacker than black. So, what’s with the new feature? Let’s take a look!

Black cars are more common. Black suits in everything whether if it is appliances, gadgets and automobiles. The most important feature of the BMW X6 car is that it is spray painted using vantablack. A pigment known as “‘blacker than black”.

The British artist Anish Kapoor has the rights to paint the vantablack.

The new BMW going more than black


The whole new BMW going more than black

Scientifically vantablack had got more features and views. It is going to be one of the future technology in Architectures, automobiles, maybe even in gadgets!

  • Vantablack known as the world’s blackest black pigment.
  • It can absorb 99% of light.
  • So reflection not possible in any way.
  • Because of total light absorption the blackest black colour perceived to human eye.
  • So it can be perceived like two dimenionally as reflection is lacking as interpreted by brain.
  • Still a little 1% of reflectance is enabled still making it the blackest car ever.
  • The German car BMW became the first car to implement it.

Vantablack features

Vantablack a material developed by Surrey Nanosystems can absorb 99.9% visible light.

It works by trapping the light in between the nanotubes in the paint. Just one square centimeter paint can contain one billion nanotubes making trapping easier. Introduced by the British artist Anish Kapoor.

Only limited edition of 50 vantablacks are available costing each a whooping 75000 $ !

Purchase option is not available but one can get the vantablack done directly by the company.

Vantablacked objects

Till now, many objects are vantablacked ranging from basketball to sculptures.

vantablacked basketball appears 2D as the visible light is all absorbed
vantablack objects

The blackest spray painting! Driving brain more crazy

So, What do you think about the vantablack? Comment and let me know!

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  • Officially known as Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).
  • The mobile brand Xiaomi claimed that in the new Redmi note 9 series, it will use the NAVIC GPS.
  • Qualcomm revealed the snapdragon 720G, snapdragon 662 and snapdragon 460 chips will support the NAVIC.


GPS abbreviation is Global Positioning System, used mainly for tracking and navigation. Indians used mainly GPS signals from the following countries. Now proudly Indians can use their own GPS.

Till date only 5 countries have their own GPS.

Countries with own GPS :

  • U S A – Navigational star or Navigational System Tracking And Range (NAVSTAR)
  • Russia – GLONASS – with 24 working satellites
  • European Union – Galileo
  • Japan – QZSS
  • China – Bei Dou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)

Above all, India is making history with the new GPS the NAVIC.

What is NAVIC?


Officially known as Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS).

To clarify, it can provide navigation and positioning services accurately in India. Also upto 1500 kms across the borders. Therefore , neighbouring countries can use this service.


PSLV launch
PSLV C27 launch containing IRNSS 1D
Courtesy : ISRO

NAVIC satellites use dual frequency bands. As a result, more accurate than GPS which uses single band and makes errors mainly signal problems.

Totally consists of 9 satellites of which

7 satellites are combination of geosynchronous and geostationary orbit.

2 satellites are ground satellites.

Indian GPS officially called IRNSS or navigation with Indian constellation

Can we use NAVIC GPS?

The NAVIC will provide two sevices :

For civilians : standard positioning service

For military : restricted service mostly encrypted one.

Now for civilians the next Android devices can use the NAVIC GPS.

xiaomi logo

The mobile brand Xiaomi claimed that in the new Redmi note 9 series, it will use the NAVIC GPS.

Qualcomm snapdragon

Also Qualcomm revealed the snapdragon 720G, snapdragon 662 and snapdragon 460 chips will support the NAVIC.

NAVIC vs GPS which will win? click here


by sciencebirdie 2 Comments


Scientists Propose Spaceline Space Elevator to Transport Astronauts from Earth’s Orbit to the Moon Techblog 8/29/19


Ever wondered? Travelling to space with your family?Fantasies?Boarding an elevator that will take you to space.Well,It will be possible in near future.

A Japanese company had started the plans for a space elevator. Therefore,it would be the most expensive infrastructure ever built.

Engineers of Shizuoka University initially proposed the plans.

Space Elevator @Jose Gutierrez Gutierrez Civit  This gives me a good understanding of how a space elevator would look like from a side view from the ground up.


It cost 10000$ to transport a pound.On the other hand,Space elevatorr will reduce the cost to 100 folds.

Rockets are heavier increasing fuel consumption.In contrast,this tech is lighter so fuel consumption will be less.

Obayashi corporation announced that in 40 years the space elevator will function.Secondly,it will carry 30 passengers.It will reach the outerspace within 7.5 days.

There will be only 4 components Tether,Anchor,counterweight and climber.Tether acts like a rope and is a tensile structure.Anchor and counterweight will balance the rope.Anchor will be attached in earth.Counterweight in the space station.Climber is a car.

The astronauts can use this car for traveling up and down the tether.In conclusion, it would acts as a connector between space and earth, transporting directly to space station.


Death By Black Hole / Freefall Astronaut Illustration on Behance

Main problem is tether.It should be light,affordable and more stable.But,no material like this was ever built.

Powering the elevator requires some renewable energy.Because a light weight elevator cannot carry fuel tanks with it.

If elevator fails,no backup plan is there.

Collection of material for building a tether covering a huge distance of 36000 kms.

Rocket debris in space can damage the tether.


Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) Market Research
carbon nanotubes

Carbon nanotubes can serve to make the tether.In addition they are stronger and tough than diamonds!

Using rocket waste debris for the raw material.Experimental tests can take place in Moon.

So no worries, no dangers as there is no gravity.


by sciencebirdie 9 Comments



Lens is a window of eye to the world.Our lens is convex lens.The natural lens of our eye.With a normal vision of 6/6.A new piece of tech.It claims to give 3 times better than 20/20 vision.Similarly,more bright and precise vision.


Many scientific companies claims for the production of Bionic lens.Publicly not released,test procedures still conducted.Current information tell they are wore like simple contact lens.

While some are placed permanently,accompanied by a painless 8 minute surgery.Similarly,it takes effect in 10 seconds.

Cost estimated to be 3200$ excluding surgery.Lifetime enhancement of eyesight is possible through Bionic lens.Secondly,it promises to give vision to disabled population.

It can also give AR(augmented reality)view.Can connect to games.Gaming now at your eyetip.

Sony inc claims development of bioiic lens.With power to detect voluntary and involuntary eye.

Voluntary eye blinks can open slot for gaming and surfing.

Google lens spectacles were developed previously.This is the advanced tech of that.

Dr. Garth Web of Ocumetics Technology Corp has invented a bionic lens that could totally correct vision in eight minutes.


3x better than 20/20 Enhanced vision enables zooming.

Highly beneficial for military in combat operations.

Beneficial for surgeons and physicians.Future without blindness.No issues for transplantation.

No pain in eyes.No strain and stress.

Beneficial for IT sector employees.


Terrorists can spread the terror using this tech.

Privacy issues can rise.Hacking of lens can be possible.

So life can be hacked.

Popularization of this tech can lead to cyborg world.

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